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  • Ontologically Committed

  • Commitment Level

  • Subject

    Natural Language
  • Categorical



  • Parent-arity Type Instance

  • Transitivity

  • Boundedness Type Instance - Downward

  • Boundedness Type Instance - Fixed Finite Levels

  • Boundedness Type Instance - Number of Fixed Levels

  • Stratification Type Instance

    Not yet assessed
  • Formal Generation - Whole Part - Fusion

    Not yet assessed
  • Formal Generation - Type Instance - Fusion

    Not yet assessed
  • Formal Generation - Super Sub Type - Fusion

    Not yet assessed
  • Formal Generation - Super Sub Type - Complement

    Not yet assessed
  • Relation Class-ness Type Instance

  • Relation Class-ness Super Sub Type



  • Spacetime

  • Locations

  • Properties

  • Endurants

  • Immaterial



  • Merelogy

  • Interpenetration

  • Materialism

    Not adopted
  • Possibilia

    Actual Worlds
  • Criteria Of Identity

    Not yet assessed
  • Time

  • Indexicals: Here And Now

    Not yet assessed
  • Higher-arity

    Not yet assessed


  1. Overview 

SmartSUMO, based on a combination of DOLCE and SUMO, is geared toward semantic integration in the mobile computing domain. an ontology over the Smart Web domain. 

  1. Top-level 


SmartSUMO is based on a merge of DOLCE and SUMO with a number of modifications not depicted here. 

  1. Key characteristics 

 SmartSUMO is TLO over the Smart Web domain. It is rooted in the alignment and merging of a descriptive foundational ontology with high ontological commitments (DOLCE) and an upper-level ontology with lower ontoligical commitments (SUMO). It is difficult to tease out the exact commitments of SmartSUMO yet it does inherit some of the high commitments of DOLCE. 

  1. Relevant extracts 

Abstract of Oberle et al: 

To integrate the various domain-specific ontologies, we have developed a foundational ontology, the SmartSUMO ontology, on the basis of the DOLCE and SUMO ontologies. This allows us to combine all the developed ontologies into a single SmartWeb Integrated Ontology (SWIntO) having a common modeling basis with conceptual clarity and the provision of ontology design patterns for modeling consistency. 

Ontological and High: (Section 3)  

In the previous section, we discussed the need for a foundational ontology and identified the integration of DOLCE and SUMO as the best available choice. 


Both ontologies had to be adapted and extended in order to arrive at the integrated ontology, called SmartSUMO 


The DOLCE and SUMO parts of SmartSUMO are mostly directed at the referent side of the well-known ‘meaning triangle’ [OR23], but much less at the symbol side. 

Natural language:  

[p5] A descriptive ontology aims at describing the ontological assumptions behind language and cognition by taking the surface structure of natural language and common sense seriously 

[p6] The SmartWeb system is targeted at the end-user and will thus model artifacts of human common sense. Therefore, the SmartWeb foundational ontology should be descriptive.  

Vertical and Universal aspects: 

[…] Multiplicism is a consequence because it is usually nearer at human common sense than reductionist modeling 

[…] Regarding the choice between possibilism and actualism we claim that the latter 
will be more practicable for the ontology engineers of the project because 
modalities would raise the complexity of modeling. 

[…] the modeling of 4D entities is required, e.g., for navigational concepts, such as Translocation, whose temporal parts would be Maneuvers. 

[…] The primary difficulty in using DOLCE proved to be the concepts 
beneath Perdurant, i.e., Stative and Event. It was too difficult for ontology 
engineers to understand the intended meaning of these terms and to classify 
their own perdurants underneath them. Hence, we only kept the concept 
Perdurant and made SUMO’s Processes direct subconcepts. 

[…] Among the extensions to DOLCE, the modeling of time is particularly 
worth mentioning. DOLCE is quite unspecific with respect to a concrete 
modeling of time-points in terms of hours, minutes, and seconds. There are 
only the basic patterns between Endurants, Perdurants, and TemporalRegions 
(these are the axioms called presentAt and happensAt). Therefore, we refined 
the patterns and introduced concrete TemporalRegions with all the necessary 
attributes: TimePoint, TimePointRelative, and TimeInterval. 

Non categorical: (pages 2-3) 

In order to realize this demonstrator, SmartWeb depends on several substantial domain ontologies for knowledge representation and reasoning. The main topics to be covered by these ontologies are the following: 


Each of the domain ontologies just described may be used in several parts of the SmartWeb demonstrator system. They need to be interoperable and therefore need to be integrated into a single concise knowledge base. 

Oberle et al., DOLCE ergo SUMO: On foundational and domain models in the SmartWeb Integrated Ontology (SWIntO), Journal of Web Semantics, 5(3), 156-174, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2007.06.002 


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