Although “CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model” (CRM) is a domain ontology, specialised to the purposes of representing cultural heritage, a subset called CRM Core is a generic upper ontology, including:
- Space-Time – title/identifier, place, era/ period, time-span, relationship to persistent items
- Events – title/identifier, beginning/ending of existence, participants (people, either individually or in groups), creation/ modification of things (physical or conceptional), relationship to persistent items
- Material Things – title/identifier, place, the information object the material thing carries, part-of relationships, relationship to persistent items
- Immaterial Things – title/identifier, information objects (propositional or symbolic), conceptional things, part-of relationships.
A persistent item is a physical or conceptional item that has a persistent identity recognized within the duration of its existence by its identification rather than by its continuity or by observation. A persistent item is comparable to an endurant.
A propositional object is a set of statements about real or imaginary things.
A symbolic object is a sign/symbol or an aggregation of signs or symbols.
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_ ontology#CIDOC_Conceptual_Reference_Model
See also: http://www.cidoc-crm.org/ Also ISO 21127:2014 Information and documentation – A reference ontology for the interchange of cultural heritage information –
F.4.3 Key characteristics
CIDOC is a lightweight foundational ontology. It does not have much documentation of its ontological commitments.
F.4.4. Relevant extracts
These extracts from: ISO 21127:2014 Information and documentation – A reference ontology for the interchange of cultural heritage information – https://www.iso.org/standard/57832.html.
3.1 – class – category of items that share one or more common traits.
(Hence, intensional criterion of identity)
3.11 – multiple inheritance – possibility for a class to have more than one immediate superclass
E77 Persistent Item – Scope note: This class comprises items that have a persistent identity, sometimes known as “endurants” in philosophy. They can be repeatedly recognized within the duration of their existence by identity criteria rather than by continuity or observation. Persistent Items can be either physical entities, such as people, animals, or things; or conceptual entities, such as ideas, concepts, products of the imagination, or common names. … The main classes of objects that fall outside the scope of the E77 Persistent Item class are temporal objects such as periods, events and acts, and descriptive properties.
(Hence, endurant stratification)
Continue to Appendix G: Prior ontological commitment literature