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Top Level Ontologies

Candidate source top-level ontologies – longlist. This appendix is intended to give a feel for the range of different approaches to top-level ontologies, including those that make little or no ontological commitment. We provide a brief overview (usually a self-description) and a picture of their top structure, where available. We also include comments on key ontological characteristics. A selection of relevant extracts is included as to give more insight into the characteristics. You can use the Filters above to sort by the categories, types and characteristics used in the assessment of the Top-level Ontologies.

48 ontologies

  1. BabelNet

    BabelNet 2011 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BabelNet
    • 0 comments
    • 18 views
  2. Basic Formal Ontology

    BFO 2002 http://basic-formal-ontology.org/
    • 0 comments
    • 104 views
  3. Bunge-Wand-Webber Ontology

    BWW 1988 n/a
    • 0 comments
    • 18 views
  4. Business Objects Reference Ontology

    BORO late 1980s https://www.borosolutions.net/
    • 0 comments
    • 30 views
  5. CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model

    CIDOC 1999 http://www.cidoc-crm.org/
    • 0 comments
    • 19 views
  6. Common Information Model

    CIM 1999 https://www.dmtf.org/standards/cim
    • 0 comments
    • 19 views
  7. COmmon Semantic MOdel

    COSMO not known - pre-2006 http://www.micra.com/
    • 0 comments
    • 20 views
  8. Conceptual Modelling Language and Cultural Heritage Abstract Reference Model

    ConML + CHARM 2011 http://www.conml.org/
    • 0 comments
    • 17 views
  9. Cyc

    Cyc 1984 https://www.cyc.com/the-cyc-platform
    • 0 comments
    • 27 views
  10. Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering

    DOLCE 2002 http://www.loa.istc.cnr.it/dolce/overview.html
    • 0 comments
    • 21 views
  11. Financial Industry Business Ontology

    FIBO 2010 https://spec.edmcouncil.org/fibo/
    • 0 comments
    • 21 views
  12. FrameNet

    FrameNet 2000 (?) https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/fndrupal/
    • 0 comments
    • 15 views
  13. Framework of Information System Concepts

    FRISCO 1988 n/a
    • 0 comments
    • 9 views
  14. Friend Of A Friend

    FOAF 2000 http://www.foaf-project.org/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOAF_(ontology), http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/
    • 0 comments
    • 8 views
  15. General Formal Ontology

    GFO 2006 https://www.onto-med.de/ontologies/gfo
    • 0 comments
    • 20 views
  16. General Ontology

    GO 1995 n/a
    • 0 comments
    • 14 views
  17. gist

    gist 2007 https://www.semanticarts.com/gist/
    • 0 comments
    • 27 views
  18. Good Relations

    GR 2007 https://www.w3.org/wiki/GoodRelations https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GoodRelations
    • 0 comments
    • 8 views
  19. High Quality Data Models

    HQDM 2011 http://www.informationjunction.co.uk/hqdm_framework/
    • 0 comments
    • 43 views
  20. Higher-Order Entity Relationship Model

    HERM 1992 http://cs-exhibitions.uni-klu.ac.at/index.php?id=451
    • 0 comments
    • 9 views
  21. IEC 62541 - OPC Unified Architecture

    IEC 62541 2006 https://opcfoundation.org/developer-tools/specifications-unified-architecture
    • 0 comments
    • 17 views
    • 0 comments
    • 16 views
  22. International Defence Enterprise Architecture Specification

    IDEAS 2006 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IDEAS_Group
    • 0 comments
    • 24 views
    • 0 comments
    • 20 views
  23. KBpedia Knowledge Ontology (KKO)

    KKO not known https://kbpedia.org/docs/kko-upper-structure/
    • 0 comments
    • 17 views
  24. KR Ontology

    KR Ontology 1999 http://www.jfsowa.com/ontology/toplevel.htm
    • 0 comments
    • 15 views
  25. Marine Top Level Ontology

    MarineTLO 2013 (?) https://projects.ics.forth.gr/isl/MarineTLO/
    • 0 comments
    • 17 views
  26. MIMOSA CCOM (Machinery Information Management Open Systems Alliance - Common Conceptual Object Model)

    MIMOSA CCOM Not Known https://www.mimosa.org/mimosa-ccom/
    • 0 comments
    • 19 views
  27. Object-Centered High-level Reference

    OCHRE 2003 n/a
    • 0 comments
    • 7 views
  28. Ontology

    Wikidata 2016 https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:WikiProject_Ontology/Ontology https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:WikiProject_Ontology/Top-level_ontology_list
    • 0 comments
    • 13 views
  29. OWL-2

    OWL-2 2004 https://www.w3.org/OWL/
    • 0 comments
    • 17 views
  30. PROTo ONtology

    PROTON 2005 (?) https://ontotext.com/documents/proton/Proton-Ver3.0B.pdf
    • 0 comments
    • 16 views
  31. Schema.org

    Schema.org 2011 https://schema.org/
    • 0 comments
    • 15 views
  32. Semantically Interlinked Online Communities

    SIOC 2004 http://sioc-project.org/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantically-Interlinked_Online_Communities https://www.w3.org/wiki/SIOC
    • 0 comments
    • 6 views
  33. Simple Knowledge Organization System

    SKOS 2009 https://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
    • 0 comments
    • 16 views
  34. Smart manufacturing - Reference architecture model industry 4.0 (RAMI4.0)

    IEC 63088 2017 https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/30082
    • 0 comments
    • 18 views
  35. SmartSUMO

    SmartSUMO 2007 http://www.smartweb-project.org/ https://aifb.kit.edu/index.php/SmartWeb/en
    • 0 comments
    • 21 views
  36. Suggested Upper Merged Ontology

    SUMO 2000 http://www.adampease.org/OP/
    • 0 comments
    • 18 views
  37. The Dublin Core ontology

    DC 1995 http://dublincore.org/
    • 0 comments
    • 19 views
  38. The European Materials Modelling Ontology (EMMO)

    EMMO 2019 (?) https://github.com/emmo-repo/EMMO
    • 0 comments
    • 23 views
  39. The SENSUS ontology

    SENSUS 2001 https://www.isi.edu/natural-language/projects/ONTOLOGIES.html
    • 0 comments
    • 22 views
  40. The Topic Maps Reference Model

    TMRM Late 1990s https://www.isotopicmaps.org/tmrm/
    • 0 comments
    • 23 views
  41. UMLS

    UMLS 1986 https://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/index.html
    • 0 comments
    • 16 views
  42. Unified Foundational Ontology

    UFO 2005 https://nemo.inf.ufes.br/en/projetos/ufo/
    • 0 comments
    • 18 views
  43. Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    UML 1994 http://uml.org/
    • 0 comments
    • 17 views
  44. Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer

    UMBEL 2008 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UMBEL
    • 0 comments
    • 16 views
  45. WordNet

    WordNet 1985 https://wordnet.princeton.edu
    • 0 comments
    • 21 views
  46. Yet Another More Advanced Top Ontology

    YAMATO 1999 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_ontology#YAMATO_(Yet_Another_More_Advanced_Top_Ontology)
    • 0 comments
    • 13 views
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