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  1. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published over 22,000 formal standards supporting the dissemination of good practice to a range of sectors from agriculture to retail. Due to the breadth of topics covered it is difficult to conceive of a domain which hasn’t been at least partially standardized. In fact, as of 2019, ISO had four standards published which referenced digital twins: ISO 14033 (Quantitative Environmental Information) ISO 15704 (Requirements for enterprise-referencing architectures) ISO 18101-1 (Oil and Gas interoperability) ISO 30146 (Smart City ICT Indicators) And, more interestingly, one of these saw the first definition for a digital twin included within an ISO document: Within ISO, there are several requirements which need to be conformed to when producing a definition. These requirements are outlined within two standards: ISO 10241-1 (general requirements and examples of presentation) ISO 704 (principles and methods) ISO 10241-1, which covers the structure of a term including how to structure a definition and referencing; and ISO 704, which covers the principles of doing terminology work. These standards state that when developing a definition, it should: Be a single phrase specifying the concept and, if possible, representing that concept within a larger system; The digital twin definition from ISO/TS 18001 does so by referencing other key terms such as digital assets and services. This provides a relationship to other related terms. In doing so, this definition makes digital twin a type of digital asset being used to create value. Be general enough to cover the use of the term elsewhere; This definition is specific enough to capture what a digital twin is in a generalist sense, while also being sufficiently generic that the same definition can be used in other standards. This is vital to achieve a harmonization of concepts across a disparate suite of documentation. Not include any requirements; and In addition, this definition doesn’t say what needs to be done for something to be considered a digital twin. This is important as definitions are meant to inform, not instruct. Be able to substitute the term within a sentence. Finally, and possibly the most challenging requirement, a definition needs to be able to substitute for the term within a sentence. For example: This exemplar organization utilizes a digital twin to improve the effectiveness of their predicative maintenance systems This exemplar organization utilizes a digital asset on which services can be performed that provide value to an organization to improve the effectiveness of their predicative maintenance systems Within the Gemini Principles, there is also another definition to consider: However, while this definition isn’t suitable for ISO as it wasn’t designed to meet these requirements, the inclusion of “realistic digital representation” might help enhance the ISO definition. And there we have it. The ISO definition for digital twin is, technically speaking, a good example of an ISO definition. However, does the definition sufficiently capture the correct concepts and relationships outlined within the Gemini Principles? Following the criteria above, how would you define a digital twin?
  2. Marek Suchocki

    Flexible Digital Twins

    A digital twin is a digital representation of something that exists in the physical world (be it a building, a factory, a power plant, or a city) and, in addition, can be dynamically linked to the real thing through the use of sensors that collect real-time data. This dynamic link to the real thing differentiates digital twins from the digital models created by BIM software—enhancing those models with live operational data. Since a digital twin is a dynamic digital reflection of its physical self, it possesses operational and behavioral awareness. This enables the digital twin to be used in countless ways, such as tracking construction progress, monitoring operations, diagnosing problems, simulating performance, and optimizing processes. Structured data requirements from the investor are crucial for the development of a digital twin. Currently project teams spend a lot of time putting data into files that unfortunately isn’t useful during the project development or ultimately to the owner; sometimes it is wrong, at other times too little, or in other cases an overload of unnecessary data. At the handover phase, unstructured data can leave owner/operators with siloed data and systems, inaccurate information, and poor insight into the performance of a facility. Data standards such as ISO 19650 directly target this problem that at a simple level require an appreciation of the asset data lifecycle that starts with defining the need in order to allow for correct data preparation. Implementing a project CDE helps ensure that the prepared data and information is managed and flows easily between various teams and project phases, through to completion and handover. An integrated connected data environment can subsequently leverage this approved project data alongside other asset information sources to deliver the foundation of a valuable useable digital twin. To develop this connected digital twin, investors and their supply chains can appear to be presented with two choices: an off-the-shelf proprietary solution tied to one vendor or the prospect of building a one-off solution with risk of long term support and maintenance challenges. However, this binary perspective is not the case if industry platforms and readily available existing integrations are leveraged to create a flexible custom digital twin. Autodesk has provided its customer base with the solutions to develop custom data integrations over many years, commencing with a reliable common data environment solution. Many of these project CDEs have subsequently migrated to become functional and beneficial digital twins because of a structured data foundation. Using industry standards, open APIs and a plethora of partner integrations, Autodesk’s Forge Platform, Construction Cloud and recently Tandem enable customers to build the digital twin they need without fear of near term obsolescence or over commitment to one technology approach. Furthermore partnerships with key technology providers such as ESRI and Archibus extend solution options as well as enhancing long term confidence in any developed digital twin. The promises of digital twins are certainly alluring. Data-rich digital twins have the potential to transform asset management and operations, providing owners new insights to inform their decision-making and planning. Although digital twin technologies and industry practice are still in their youth, it is clear that the ultimate success of digital twins relies on connected, common, and structured data sources based on current information management standards, coupled with adoption of flexible technology platforms that permit modification, enhancement or component exchange as the digital twin evolves, instead of committing up front to one data standard or solution strategy.
  3. Catherine Condie

    Digital Twin Roadblocks report

    This research aimed to investigate the breadth and depth of digital twin blockers, galvanising the community towards greater engagement and collaboration to solve a complex set of national challenges. The DT Hub’s strategic approach was cyclical, beginning with highlighting the challenges and the opportunities faced by members. The project consisted of a series of strategy jams with the community interspersed by activity on the DT Hub in a ‘call-and-response’ manner. This approach became more effective as the project progressed. First, community thinking was used to seed the Roadblock Identification Jam, whose outputs in turn were put back into the community for further comment, refinement and validation. The next step was to kick off a discussion on the relative importance of different roadblocks to feed into the Roadblock Prioritisation Jam. Again, the outputs were subsequently checked in the wider community. The final DT Hub activity was preparatory to the Roadblock Prototyping Jam, consisting of a brainstorm to find ways around certain blockers, the results of which were fed into the final Jam – evaluating the problem definition and trying to find solutions. The research resulted in recommendations to support the DT Hub in tackling gaps, prioritising pressing issues and galvanising engagement to tackle the blockers. In summary, they are to: · Form a digital twin accelerator programme · Review the online community platform · Leverage the convening power of the DT Hub for engagement with others · Lead on the development of vision and value for digital twins · Evaluate and progress the Strategy Jam ideas · Introduce a problem-solving toolkit · Conduct a meta-analysis to compare this research with other findings and DT Hub resources. Read the report.
  4. until
    National Grid Electricity System Operator (ESO) has launched a world-first programme to build a digital replica of the entire GB energy landscape, creating a virtual environment to share data, model and predict scenarios that support the decarbonisation of the energy system. The Virtual Energy System will be a digital twin of the existing physical energy system, working in parallel to enable an accessible, unified, real-time view of every part of the GB energy system. This virtual environment will create the ability to generate insights and new ideas and model solutions to cut real-world carbon emissions, supporting the transition to net zero while delivering long-term value to industry and consumers. The programme comes at a time when Great Britain’s energy system is undergoing its most significant ever transition, and this announcement coincides with the annual COP26 UN climate change conference this year, taking place in Glasgow. How the Virtual Energy System will work: 1. The development of the Virtual Energy System begins with an open framework, with agreed access, operations and security protocols. 2. Over time, this will be populated by existing and new digital twins – replicas of physical components of the energy system. 3. Each digital twin will contribute to and access real-time data on the status and operation of other elements of the system. 4. This layered data will generate insight, and a virtual environment through which to innovate ideas, with the potential to transform the system and support the transition to net zero. National Grid ESO will be hosting a free-to-access one-day online conference on 1 December, providing an opportunity for the energy industry and wider stakeholders to find out more about the programme and how to get involved with its design and development. Panellists include Ofgem, BEIS, Energy Digitalisation Taskforce, Energy Systems Catapult and more. Interested parties can register for the conference here (https://uk.virtualeventhosts.com/virtualenergysystemconference2021/login) An industry consultation will be launched in December, and future industry events will be announced as the programme develops. Visit the Virtual Energy System webpage. (https://www.nationalgrideso.com/virtual-energy-system) For more information about the Virtual Energy System and how to be involved, email VirtualES@nationalgrideso.com.
  5. On the Gemini Call on 16th November we had Sheikh Fakhar Khalid - @Khalid - Chief Scientist at Sensat, present a Feature Focus on 'Automation Enabled Digital Twins', which created a lot of discussion and questions! Khalid has kindly agreed to carry on the discussion of the key topics that came up. If you'd first like to watch his presentation, you can view it here. Here are the key questions that were asked, so that you can add your own thoughts and Khalid will be checking in to respond! (Note that we had a few questions around dimensions, so we have grouped them for you) What standard is applied to the data to achieve semantic interoperability? Or is this all just siloed tech? Is the 'digital thread' a thread through time or a thread through process? Or both? Is a digital twin 3D or 4D? Why does a digital twin need to be three dimensional? Surely the definition doesn't require that? On '3D', shouldn't we make a distinction between the digital twin and the visualisation of the digital twin? Is there a danger of using "levels". It makes "lower level" twins look less mature, even though that might be all that is needed for that use case. We saw that with BIM - where some "chased" the levels What do you think? Please share below... (And don't forget to register for next week's Gemini call here)
  6. Something (hopefully) of interest to share. A colleague at the University of Bristol, Dr Maria Pregnolato, was in Westminster this week as part of the Sense about Science event, talking to parliamentarians about how Digital Twins can predict when infrastructure fails. With others, Maria is exploring how DTs can increase the resilience of infrastructure. One project features a case study using the Clifton Suspension Bridge - more detail is here. This and other work is informing discussions with policymakers as it is seen as important to recognise that the value from DTs will be diminished if a number of Challenges to Implementation are not addressed, including: Compelling definitions and unclear processes Standardising protocols for data management Supporting engineering companies in the digital transition. It would be interesting to hear the thoughts of others.
  7. Dave Murray

    Test Engineering and DTs

    I am considering starting a network for topics related to Lifecycle V&V (Validation and Verification) centred on Evaluation and Testing, and this message is to poll the level of potential interest. I imagine the network would offer the following: · A place for Test Engineers from different market sectors to share experiences and gain knowledge · Support for those areas where DT activity is low but growing, the Defence Sector is an example, to benefit from the experiences of other sectors Test Engineers have a mix of technical and customer skills that are central to successful project implementation. The DT concept provides a lifecycle project-thread that provides Test Engineers with an unprecedented opportunity to exercise their skills. Maybe finding a way to maximise this opportunity might also attract more people to the career, and be a way to improve recruitment into the world of Engineering? If we launch this Network, would you consider joining it? Dave Murray
  8. After engaging with members of the DTHub to collect and incorporate your views, we are pleased to announce the publication of the Digital Twins for the Built Environment Standards Roadmap [Full Report] [Summary Report]. As reported by O’Sullivan and Brévignon‐Dodin, standards roadmaps support innovations and emerging technologies by helping their respective communities to coalesce around needs, priorities and approaches. This standards roadmap was developed to specifically support the consistent adoption of, and interoperability between, digital twins for the built environment within the UK. In doing so it recommends the development of several standards of varying types around two key themes: Digital twin framework for the built environment: This theme takes into account existing work at ISO to develop a digital twin framework for manufacturing so that the built environment approach can be compared to, and aligned with, the approach being taken by other sectors; and Digital Built Environment: This theme identifies gaps within the existing standards landscape to facilitate trusted, open, and secure exchanges of information to and between organisations through mechanism such as digital twins. The gaps within each of these themes were then developed into outline concepts to determine their dependencies and establish a critical path for their development. The first recommendation is an agile standard that outlines the overview and general principles relating to digital twins for the built environment. As such, this roadmap supports both the wider digital transformation of the built environment being supported by the likes of the Construction Leadership Council, Construction Innovation Hub, and the UK BIM Alliance as well as the realisation of the CDBB National Digital Twin Programme. Now published on the DT Hub [Full Report] [Summary Report], it is hoped that this standards roadmap will be supported by the DT Hub Community as well as all relevant stakeholders so that we, the built environment, can begin to establish consensus for good practice relating to digital twins. We invite you to read, comment, and share this standards roadmap to help make its recommendations a reality.
  9. Tammy Au

    Approaching standards with agility

    We have seen over the past year how the COVID-19 response has accelerated the speed and scale of digital transformation. One of the most striking developments is the huge momentum towards the adoption of digital twins in the built environment. It’s an important step forward as there is immense value for the UK in unlocking the potential of digital twins. However, it needs to be done in the right way - built on good values, as well as a shared foundation and framework to support the end goal of secure data exchange and interoperability. This is why the development of a set of standards is crucial and a key aim of the Construction Innovation Hub (the Hub). Working with the CDBB’s National Digital Twin Programme (NDTp) and the British Standards Institute (BSI), we’ve already made significant progress towards that goal and it’s exciting to be pioneers in establishing what will hopefully be a common language - guidelines that can be used, not just here in the UK, but globally. Keeping pace with a rapidly evolving market Standards are typically seen as offering clarity and consistency – but the methodology traditionally used to develop them does not necessarily offer agility as it can often take years. We are collaborating again with both the NDTp and the BSI to produce a visionary white paper exploring the benefits of developing standards that are more dynamic, flexible and agile. The need for agility is driven by the pace of change in the digital sector - good practice needs to adapt at the same rate. Agile approaches to standardization are a way of remaining relevant and delivering value by acting as up-to-date reference points, even at times of great uncertainty and change. Ensuring that standards can evolve and flex to facilitate and support innovation is a key driver for both the National Digital Twin programme and the Construction Innovation Hub. This White Paper and the development of the new Flex Standard is a really positive move for future disruption, which will drive the sector forward. Driving innovation and cutting edge practice including the development of digital twins helping to advance the construction sector and beyond. We are not creating something completely untested – we can look at the evidence found in the software development industry, where agile methodologies and DevOps have delivered high quality working code, continuously at scale. This paper sets out how we can learn from such techniques and apply them to the world of standards. Alongside the white paper we are running a pilot using BSI’s new agile standardisation service (BSI Flex) to demonstrate why agile standards are the right approach to use in the digital twin space. BSI Flex develops consensus-based good practice that adapts to keep pace with fast changing markets such as the digital twin market. Update We are looking forward to delivering the latest phase of this work, with consultation on the pilot standard beginning at the end October 2021. An interesting example of how BSI Flex has been used recently was in developing Safe Working Guidelines with the onset of the pandemic. BSI published its first Safe Working Guidelines BSI Flex standard in May 2020, and Versions 2 and 3 followed in July and August. The first version was produced in just two weeks and the subsequent iterations benefitted from comments received during public consultation. The Guidelines were then used as the basis of a new international standard. It demonstrated that in such a fast-changing environment, where everyone was faced with unprecedented challenges, a flexible approach to creating a standard was the right approach. The standards journey so far The agile standards white paper is building on early standards groundwork that was undertaken within the Digital Twin (DT) Hub and BSI over the last year. It consisted of: Research to produce a Landscape report on existing standards related to digital twins, including a gap analysis of areas which require further development The publication of a Standards Roadmap for digital twins, which guides and recommends potential development of standards within the digital twin sector. Dan Rossiter, Brand Ambassador to the National Digital Twin programme gives an overview on the standards groundwork that has taken place so far. Each step of the way, consensus and collaboration have been essential and we’re enormously grateful for all the various stakeholders who have offered feedback and advice. We’re looking forward to sharing this white paper with you and again receiving all your comments. It’s a really exciting development and paves the way for the first standard for digital twins due to be published for open consultation later this summer. They will shape the future of our built environment, ensuring safety, quality and value. Ron Lang, Chief Technical Officer, Construction Innovation Hub Read the Agile Standards White Paper
  10. The Good Homes Alliance seeks to drive up standards, performance and quality in new homes built in the UK. We have developed a concept built upon existing IP that digitises an assured performance process to enable a comprehensive outcome that will enable net zero (and other desirable outcomes such as health and wellbeing of occupants) to be met and verified. This concept would address a number of issues currently being discussed and deabted by the investment/finance/insurance/warranty sectors and would upskill design teams and constructors because of the built in on demand training that accompanies the app-concept. The concept is called NetZeTT (Net Zero Tool and Training) and has an existing set of project partners, what it doesn't yet have is funding, if any potential funders are interested in this project please reply.
  11. Digital twin standards roadmap workshop The DT Hub together with BSI hosted an interactive session which provided an opportunity to capture insights from UK experts to help validate the findings of the proposed standards roadmap prepared by BSI. The session also gave the community an opportunity to share their views on some of the priorities for standards to support successful digital twins in the built environment. The slides from the workshop can also be viewed here. DT Standards Roadmap Workshop 2020.12.03.pdf
  12. Firstly, thank you to everyone who joined the concepts and principles standards workshop on the 11th of February. With 70+ attendees and a wealth of engagement, I feel that we managed to make some real progress in establishing the DT Hub community's views on the future BSI Flex standard. As mentioned during the workshop, the slide deck presented will be given to the technical author and advisory group for consideration, acting as a seed for further standardisation development. A copy of the slide deck used with the comments and changes incorporate is available here. In this article, I wanted to highlight some of the key insights that came from the workshop as well as provide you with the ability to keep track of this work as it progresses. Scope: Generally, the community appeared to be content with the draft scope, which had used the scope of ISO/DIS 23247-1 (Digital Twins for Manufacturing) as its basis. The comments received focused on types of assets, systems and processes which should be highlighted. Of particular note was the desire to include information assets, natural assets, and safety and control systems which have all now been included. There was also a strong desire to highlight the relationship to information and information management. A comment has been included to ask that this is done within the introduction as opposed to the scope. Concepts: After I had introduced a series of different conceptual diagrams, I was surprised to see a preference for the figure within ISO/DIS 23247-1. However while this figure appeared to be preferred, several attendees pointed out the need to articulate the scalability of the built environment; with mention made of effective visuals previously used by @Mark Enzer to explain the relationship between components, systems, and systems of systems. In addition, previous comments around the need to highlight the natural environment as a distinct facet were echoed. This led to the introduction of another figure from Flourishing Systems which highlights the built environment as economic infrastructure, social infrastructure and the natural environment. Principles: Having discussed the overall concept, we moved to the principles that should govern digital twins for the built environment. Using the original Gemini Principles as a basis, the community did not challenge the existing principles but did suggest a potential 10th, Provenance. Distinct from Quality, provenance would focus on the origin of information to enable someone to assess its potential accuracy or trustworthiness. Terminology: After discussing observable elements and references we concluded with Terminology. Using the existing terms on the DTHub Glossary as a basis, the community suggested several additional terms such as: interoperability, asset, system, process, system of systems, semantics and syntax. In addition @Ramy, a Northumbrian University PhD student, shared a figure and thoughts around Digital Twin uses and a “DT uses taxonomy” which he has also published on the DT Hub, here. It is this sort of engagement that makes the DT Hub a community, thank you. As I mentioned, the outcomes of this workshop will be fed into the development of BSI’s Flex standard around digital twins for the built environment. And there we have it. Please feel free to keep the conversation going by commenting below or directly on the slide deck. Stay tuned on the DT Hub for more news, updates and ways to get involved in the development of BSI’s Flex standard.
  13. 60 downloads

    Summary of discussions held during working including further comments for consideration
  14. Standards make everyday life work. They may decide the size or shape of a product or system. They can specify terms so that there are no misunderstandings. They are crucial for instilling confidence and consistency for both providers and users. This is why we have made the development of a set of standards a crucial component of our journey towards building a National Digital Twin. In conversations we’ve had in the Digital Twin (DT) Hub and the wider Centre for Digital Built Britain (CDBB) community, there have been significant concerns about the costs involved in investing in a digital twins. We believe, that to mitigate the risk and avoid the need to make changes down the line, standards are of vital importance. We need a shared foundation and framework to support the end goal of secure data exchange and interoperability. We’ve made significant progress towards that goal and it’s exciting to be pioneers in establishing what will hopefully be a common language - guidelines that can be used, not just here in the UK, but globally. To start with, we’ve needed to gain a thorough understanding of what the current standards landscape looks like and the CDBB commissioned the British Institute of Standards (BSI) to do the research. Their initial scoping exercise is complete and BSI and CDBB are now reviewing the results of this exercise to identify if and where standards are needed to overcome a specific challenge or fulfil a purpose. We’ve also looked to other sectors to see if existing standards can be applied or modified to work in the built environment. We are now in the process of creating a clear roadmap that prioritises standards to be developed. The document will be accompanied by a report to include the narrative, justification and rationale behind the roadmap. It will be presented through a series of thematic areas: Digital Twins, Data, ICT, Application, and Outcomes as well as multiple sub-topic themes, to help enable users to locate key standards. The end goal is a very practical guide. It will cover everything from a shared vocabulary, to ensure consistent definitions of assets, to recommended data formats, user case methodology, a code of practice on information exchange and so on. A vital part of the process is involving stakeholders and we’re very grateful for all the feedback we’ve received so far. We have recently had the opportunity to share the latest review with DT Hub members as well as those within the wider digital twin community. Attendees of the recent workshop, hosted by BSI, had the opportunity to both critique and verify the findings as well as to share their views on some of the priorities for standards to support successful digital twins in the built environment. This has been a valued opportunity to really shape the direction of these important developments as we can’t do it alone. A great example of the impact standards can make is one I came across from the early 1900s when the BSI developed a standard for tram gauges at a time when, in the UK alone, there were 75 different widths of gauge! They succeeded in reducing it down to five recommended widths. These became the standards going forward and greatly boosted the industry’s fortunes increasing compatibility between networks and rolling stock. As the British standard was adopted abroad, the UK tram market enjoyed more opportunities to trade and business flourished. We hope to make a similar kind of impact – we want to see all developers of digital twins flourish and benefit from the advantages that sharing data and ideas can bring. But in order to do that successfully, the whole process needs to be underpinned by standards that have been formed out of thorough research and review and have the support and involvement of as many people as possible. We look forward to seeing you around the DT Hub! Samuel Chorlton, Chair of the Digital Twin Hub
  15. The idea of a Digital Twin [DT] needs to advance in a standardized and formal manner. As @DRossiter87 pointed out, this is necessary to "support the consistent adoption of, and interoperability between, digital twins for the built environment within the UK" To aid in this endeavour, it is useful to delineate the difference between the following terms: “DT General Use Case” [GUC]: a very short sentence, possibly consisting of two or three words – ideally a verb followed by a noun – ultimately concerned with the brief and blunt statement of the central business aim that is motivating the use and implementation of a DT, e.g., ‘optimize traffic’. “DT Use Case Scenario” [UCS]: a documentation of the sequence of actions, or in other words, DT-user interactions executed through a particular DT case study or an actual DT real-world project. “DT Use”: a typical technical function or action executed by any DT throughout the course of any UCS. Accordingly, the DT uses are seen as the standard building blocks by which a standard common language can be founded. Such a standard language, which can possibly be machine-readable as well, can be used in documenting and detailing the DT-user interactions in a standard format to facilitate their publishing and sharing of knowledge. Below is a figure of a “DT uses taxonomy”. It is made up of three distinct hierarchical levels, these are respectively: ‘Included Uses’ containing four high-level cornerstone uses that are, besides rare exceptional cases, included in and executed by almost every DT throughout any UCS (i.e. Mirror, Analyse, Communicate and Control); ‘Specialized Uses’ including special forms of the Included Uses, where each specialized use enjoys unique strengths suitable for specific purposes; and “Specialized Sub-Uses” at the lowest hierarchical level of the taxonomy, which further differentiates between variant types within a Specialized Use at the higher level by virtue of very fine inherent variations that distinguish one type from another and thus, enhances the DT’s practical adequacy in dealing with alternative contexts and user specifically defined purposes. The table below include a formal definition of each DT Use. DT Use Definition Synonyms 01 Mirror To duplicate a physical system in the real world in the form of a virtual system in the cyber world. Replicate, twin, model, shadow, mimic 1.1 Capture Express in a digital format within the virtual world the status of a physical system at a point of time. (Usually, offline DT) collect, scan, survey, digitalize 1.2 Monitor Collecting information related to the performance of a physical system. (Online or Offline DT) Sense, observe, measure 1.3 Quantify Measure quantity of a physical system’s particulars, instances or incidents. (Online or Offline DT) Quantify, takeoff, count 1.4 Qualify Track the ongoing status of a physical system (Online or Offline DT) Qualify, follow, track DT Use Definition Synonyms 02 Analyse To create new knowledge and provide insights for users and stakeholders about a physical system. Examine, manage 2.1 Compute To perform conventional arithmetical calculations, traditional mathematical operations and functions and simple statistical techniques like correlations Calculate, add, subtract, multiply, divide 2.2 Mine To uncover, identify and recognize the web of interdependencies, interconnected mechanisms, complex processes, interwoven feedback loops, masked classes, clusters or typologies, hidden trends and patterns within the physical system. Learn, recognize, identify, detect, AI, ML, BDA 2.3 Simulate To explore and discover the implications and possible emerging behaviours of a complex web of interacting set of variables. 2.3.1 Scenario To find out the implications, impacts or consequences of implementing pre-defined scenarios (akin to non-destructive tests) What-if, evaluate, assess 2.3.2 Stress-Test To identify the scenarios that may lead to failure or breakdown of physical system (akin to destructive tests) Test, inspect, investigate 2.4 Predict Concerned with futures studies 2.4.1 Forecast to predict the most likely state of a real system in the future, by projecting the known current trends forward over a specified time horizon. foresee 2.4.2 Back-cast To question or prove in a prospective manner, how the physical system is operating towards achieving the pre-set aims and goals. manage, confirm 2.5 Qualitize Enhance and improve the quality of the outcomes or deliverables produced by an intervention in real world. 2.5.1 Verify Verify conformance and compliance of physical system with standards, specifications and best practice. Validate, check, comply, conform 2.5.2 Improve Inform the future updating, modifying or enhancing the current standards to be in better coherence and harmony with the actual operational and usage behaviours and patterns. Update, upgrade, revise DT Use Definition Synonyms 03 Communicate To exchange collected and analysed information amongst stakeholders. interact 3.1 Visualize To form and vision a realistic representation or model of current or predicted physical system. review, visioning 3.2 Immerse To involve interested stakeholders in real-like experiences using immersive technologies such as VR, AR and MR. involve 3.3 Document Document and represent gathered and/or analysed data in a professional manner and technical language, forms or symbols. Present 3.4 Transform To modify, process or standardize information to be published and received by other DT(s) or other DT users (e.g. a National DT) or overcome interoperability issues Translate, map 3.5 Engage To involve citizens and large groups of people including marginalized groups in policy and decision-making processes. Empower, include DT Use Definition Synonyms 04 Control To leverage the collected and analysed information to intervene back into the real world to achieve a desirable state. Implement, execute 4.1 Inform To support human decision making throughout the implementation of interventions in the real world. Support, aid 4.2 Actuate Using CPS and actuators to implement changes to physical system. Regulate, manipulate, direct, automate, self-govern Standardised set of ‘DT Uses’ can help avoid miscommunication and confusion while sharing or publishing DT Use Case Scenarios and their content explicitly explaining the 'know-how'. It can also support the procurement of DT services by ensuring the use of a one common language across the supply chain and stakeholders. Al-Sehrawy R., Kumar B. @Bimal Kumarand Watson R. (2021). Digital Twin Uses Classification System for Urban Planning & Infrastructure Program Management. In: Dawood N., Rahimian F., Seyedzadeh S., Sheikhkhoshkar M. (eds) Enabling The Development and Implementation of Digital Twins. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality. Teesside University Press, UK.
  16. https://www.nationalresourcesreview.com.au/mag/AUGUST2020.html#pdfflip-PDFF/31/ I spoke to Genene on a recent DTFC podcast and really took a shine to her. The most contentious view she has is that a 3D model of an asset is a static digital twin. I'm with Michael Grieves on this, 'it's an analogy'. So does it even matter? calling a 3D model a static digital twin in engineering and built environment sectors gives customers a feeling of being on the journey towards a dynamic digital twin. Good article from a good egg.
  17. As part of my last post Consolidating Concepts: Scope, I discussed a potential structure that a concepts and principles standard related to digital twin could adopt. In this post, I’ll consider how this structure aligns to the Gemini Principles. I’d greatly appreciate your views as to whether I’ve gotten this right! Using ISO/DIS 23247-1 (Digital Twin framework for manufacturing. Part 1. Overview and general principles) as a basis, I presented the following structure, now modified to include standard clause numbering: Scope Normative References Terms and Definitions Overview of Digital Twin for the Built Environment Concept of the Digital Twin Digital Twin for the Built Environment Applications (Uses) of Digital Twin for the Built Environment Benefits of Digital Twin for the Built Environment Observable Built Environment Elements General Principles of the Digital Twin Framework for the Built Environment Overview Standardization Scope of the Digital Twin Framework for the Built Environment Requirements of the Digital Twin for the Built Environment Hierarchical modelling of Digital Twin for the Built Environment Considering the topics to be covered, a lot of good reference information is available within the Gemini Principles, the values set out by CDBB to aid the development of a National Digital Twin (NDT). Pages 10 include definitions (3) as well distinguishing features of a digital twin (4.1); Page 11 also includes several purposes which could form the basis of (4.3); Pages 12-13 focus on the national digital twin application (4.3) as well as list several benefits (4.4); Pages 16 outline the nine principles at high level (5.1); and Pages 17-23 begin to establish the requirements of these principles (5.3). However, it is clear to see that the Gemini Principles does not cover all of these topics. For example, it does not include any information about what elements a built environment digital twin may wish to observe/monitor (4.5), cover the standardization scope (5.2) or deal with the hierarchical modelling (5.4). In which case, where can we find this information? For example, reports such as Flourishing Systems discuss different levels of aggregation: Component, System, and System of Systems. Could this form the basis of our Hierarchical modelling? I wonder what other good information could also be extracted from Flourishing Systems… And there we have it, the Gemini Principles appear to be an ideal basis for the production of such a standard. Reading this: Have I correctly interpreted the content of the Gemini Principles? What other documents could also support the production of such a standard? Please let me know in the comments as we consolidate the communities’ views around what concepts and principles are important to capture before the webinar on the 11th February at 10:00. Join us as we delve deeper into a formalised set of concepts and principles for digital twins in the built environment.
  18. 64 downloads

    This standards roadmap is designed to summarise the current standardisation landscape relating to digital twins for the built environment as of January 2021. This includes national, European and global standards projects and related activities deemed as directly relevant to potential production, maintenance and application of digital twins to support built environment activities.
  19. 226 downloads

    This standards roadmap is designed to summarise the current standardisation landscape relating to digital twins for the built environment as of January 2021. This includes national, European and global standards projects and related activities deemed as directly relevant to potential production, maintenance and application of digital twins to support built environment activities.
  20. During December, the Digital Twin Hub and BSI hosted a Digital Twin Standards Landscape Workshop based on the recently published Draft Standards Landscape Report (final version to follow). The workshop highlighted the need to prioritize the development of a standard outlining the concepts and principles related to digital twins for the built environment. This post explores, at high level, what such a standard might cover and asks you, the reader, to consider the questions posed to inform how it is potentially developed. Please comment under this post with any answers you may have or insights you wish to share; referencing the question were relevant. There are many types of standards. BS 0, the standard for standards, provides a list of different types of British Standard. When producing concepts and principles, these are typically drafted as a guide: Such a guide would need to follow the structure given within the ISO/IEC directives. Foreword Introduction Scope Normative References Terms and Definitions Clauses and Sub-clauses Annexes Bibliography Introduction: The introduction provides specific information or commentary about the content of the document. While optional, introductions help provide context. The introduction is a great place to outline why such a standard is needed as well as the benefits it helps to realize. Question 1: What context would you like the introduction to cover? For example: How the document supports the concept of data for the public good. Scope: The scope defines the subject of the document and the aspects covered. In developing the standards roadmap, a provisional scope has already been written! Question 2: Does this scope capture what this document needs to cover? Normative References: Lists documents cited within the normative clauses needed to understand the content. Standards such as BS EN ISO 19650-1 may need to be cited, for example, and would appear as a normative reference. Question 3: What documents do you think will need to be cited? Terms and Definitions: Lists the definitions necessary to understand the terms used in the document. As a new domain, there will likely be several terms and definitions which will need to be captured beyond the terms typically used within the built environment. Many of which may already be included within the DT Hub Glossary. Question 4: What terms and definitions do you think will need to be included? Clauses and Sub-clauses: The normative content of the document. Unlike a management system standard, there is not a defined structure for a set of concepts and principles. As referenced within the Draft Standards Landscape Report, ISO/DIS 23247-1 outlines the concepts and principles of digital twins for manufacturing. Within, it uses the following structure (adapted to suit the built environment): Question 5: Do these headings capture what this document needs to cover? And there we have it, the potential outline of the concepts and principles standard related to digital twin for the built environment. Please let us know your thoughts by commenting on the five questions posed, or if there is anything else you wish to raise. In addition, there will also be a workshop 10:00-12:00 on the 11th of February to discuss this topic in detail, so please mark your calendars (invites to follow). Your views are invaluable as we steadily realize the National Digital Twin programme, share them here!
  21. DRossiter87

    A Standards Roadmap for Digital twins

    Historically, standards have often been (falsely!) perceived as a contradiction to innovation. In fact, standards have often played a pivotal role in the adoption of new innovations. This is because those standards established a framework which defined aspects such as common vocabularies, essential characteristics and good practice. Once such a framework had been established, products and services that support the framework were developed. What happened with Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a great example of this. After developing the PAS 1192 series, UK competencies around BIM were catalysed; allowing the UK to (and continue to) export its leadership globally. To facilitate the same level of adoption for digital twins, a similar framework is needed. With work already underway to develop standards relating to digital twins at ISO, a roadmap for digital twins within the built environment is needed to ensure that such standards are developed in a holistic manner; formalizing the right content while allowing the sector to compete within these constraints. To that end, BSI have worked with CDBB to produce a digital twins standards roadmap for the built environment. This roadmap considers what specific digital twin standard are needed as well as what supporting standards need to be produced which relate to the wider use of digital within the built environment. The roadmap was developed through the analysis of around 12,540 standards across a myriad of sectors. The Standards roadmap is attached below. Comments and contributions to the roadmap, due to be updated periodically, are welcomed. Please feel free to comment below, email DTHub@cdbb.cam.ac.uk. HUB Version_DT Standards Roadmap_November 2020 (3).pdf
  22. Alexandra Robasto

    Standards Roadmap Consultation Workshop

    until
    The DT Hub together with BSI are now starting the process of identifying what formalised good practice might help accelerate the production, maintenance and application of digital twins and support the wider national digital twin programme. To enable this, we have conducted extensive research into the current standardisation landscape to identify what existing standards already support digital twins as well as what appear to be potential gaps. These gaps have been identified and placed on a development roadmap for CDBB to consider supporting. This interactive session will provide an opportunity to capture insights from UK experts to help validate the findings as well as for you to share your views on some of the priorities for standards to support successful digital twins in the built environment, such as Data, IT, Insights, and Outcomes. This event will include a mix of presentations and Q&A. Who should participate in the webinar? Digital twin owners, suppliers, academia as well as those who are involved in digital twins in the built environment and want to help shape what good practice looks like. What will participants gain? As a valued stakeholder your views and experience can help us determine and validate: Current national and international standards of relevance to digital twins in the built environment Known or perceived gaps (in the landscape) for standards to support digital twins Priority areas for future standards to accelerate digital twins To join us please register on EventBrite.
  23. Version 1.0.0

    69 downloads

    This standards roadmap is designed to summarise the current standardisation landscape relating to digital twins for the built environment as of November 2020. This includes national, European and global standards projects and related activities deemed as directly relevant to potential production, maintenance and application of digital twins to support built environment activities.
  24. Version 1.0.0

    17 downloads

    This standards roadmap is designed to summarise the current standardisation landscape relating to digital twins for the built environment as of November 2020. This includes national, European and global standards projects and related activities deemed as directly relevant to potential production, maintenance and application of digital twins to support built environment activities.
  25. It is proposed that the Information Management Framework (IMF) for the creating of a National Digital Twin will consist of three technical elements: the Foundation Data Model (FDM), Reference Data Library (RDL) and Integration Architecture (IA). The IMF will underpin the creation of an environment which supports the use, management and integration of digital information across the life-cycle of assets. The IMF will also enable secure, resilient information sharing between organisations and will facilitate better decision making across sectors. The National Digital Twin Programme has initiated work investigating this approach with a thin slice of the IMF for the Construction Innovation Hub, to support the development of CIH’s Platform Ecosystem. This thin slice of the IMF is called the FDM Seed. The FDM describes basic concepts such as space-time which are attributable across all areas of our industry. By developing this, the FDM provides a way to explore relationships between these different areas. The FDM Seed is an inception of the above concept and is proposed by starting smaller and watching the development grow - similar to a seed. The first steps of the FDM Seed project is to survey the landscape, to investigate what ontologies and Data models are already in use out there, what they can do, and their limitations, and assess what tools may be useful as a starting point for the FDM and the RDL. The starting point for the FDM is a top-level ontology, this contains the fundamental and generic types of things that exist and the fundamental relationships between them. The survey of Top-Level Ontologies (TLOs) uncovered a surprisingly high number of candidate TLOs with 40 being identified and reviewed, many more that we could have imagined. Fig 1.General classification of the TLO – taken from A Survey of Top-level Ontologies The final survey of top-level ontologies is, we think, the first of its kind. We were looking for an ontology that was rigorous, simple and with sufficient explanatory detail to cover our scope of interest, which is very broad. There are roughly two groups of TLOS, Foundational and Generic: The foundation are rigorous, principled foundations and provide a basis for consistent development and would be suitable for the FDM. The Generic tended to generalisations of lower level, rather than principled and lack a principled basis for extension, and therefore not suitable for the structure of the FDM, though likely to be use for the FDM generic lower levels. An RDL provides the classes and properties to describe the detail of an asset. The survey hoped to identify the most prominent of Industry Data Models and show the best starting point for the IMF RDL. There are many different RDLs in use across sectors. For the purpose of the FDM seed a limited analysis was carried out, but the list is open, and more candidates will be added for future consideration. Surveying and analysing the most commonly used RDLs will mean we are able to give guidance to organization when mapping their existing RDLs to the NDT. Next steps The Survey papers have now been published. We encourage you to engage with the National Digital Twin Programme to find out more about the approach, the results of the survey and the Assessments of the TLOs and Industry Data Models & RDLs. You can find these resources under the 'Files' tab. The Programme is now in the process of gathering their recommendations for the TLOs to use to start the work on the FDM Seed thin slice. We anticipate basing the FDM development on one of the TLOs, bringing in elements from others, based on the survey & analysis.
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