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A Survey of Top-level Ontologies - Appendix K

  • Glossary



    formal ontology 

    The term formal ontology; itself was coined by Edmund Husserl in the second edition of his Logical Investigations (1900-01), where it refers to an ontological counterpart of formal logic. Formal ontology for Husserl embraces an axiomatized mereology and a theory of dependence relations, for example between the qualities of an object and the object itself. Formal; signifies not the use of a formal-logical language, but rather: non-material, or in other words domain-independent (of universal application).” 


    Jonathon Lowe in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy described ontology as “the set of things whose existence is acknowledged by a particular theory or system of thought.” 

    material, physical and concrete 

    Objects consisting of matter (or energy). Not abstract. Three terms used interchangeably. 

    ontological model 

    A model of an ontology. An ontology can have multiple models. 

    ontological architecture 

    The fundamental structures of the ontology. Typically includes the major choices of ontological commitment. Can function as a blueprint for developing an ontology. 

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