gist is developed and supported by Semantic Arts. gist (not an acronym – it means to get the essence of) is a “minimalist upper ontology”. gist is targeted at enterprise information systems, although it has been applied to healthcare delivery applications. The major attributes of gist are:
- it is small (there are 140 classes and 127 properties)
- it is comprehensive (most enterprises will not find the need to create additional primitive classes, but will find that most of their classes can be defined and derived from gist)
- it is robust – all the classes descend from 12 primitive classes, which are mostly mutually disjoint. This aids a great deal in subsequent error detection. There are 1342 axioms, and it uses almost all of the DL constructs (it is SROIQ(D))
- it is concrete – most upper ontologies start with abstract philosophical concepts that users must commit to in order to use the ontology. Gist starts with concrete classes that most people already do, or reasonably could agree with, such as Person, Organization, Document, Time, UnitOfMeasure and the like)
- it is unambiguous – ambiguous terms (such as “term”) have been removed as they are often overloaded and confused. Also terms that frequently have different definitions at different enterprises (such as customer and order) have been removed, also to reduce ambiguity.
- it is understandable – in addition to being built on concrete, generally understood primitives, it is extremely modular. The 140 classes are implemented in 18 modular ontologies, each can easily be understood in its entirety, and each imports only the other modules that it needs.
See also: https://www.semanticarts.com/gist/
F.15.3. Key characteristics
gist is a generic TLO. It clearly states it intentionally has few ontological commitments.
F.15.4 Relevant Extracts
Extract 1 – Avoids “abstract philosophical concepts”
“it is concrete – most upper ontologies start with abstract philosophical concepts that users must commit to in order to use the ontology. Gist starts with concrete classes that most people already do, or reasonably could agree with, such as Person, Organization, Document, Time, and the like)”
Extract 2 – “Gist has extensive and fine grained at the highest level.”
“Gist has a small number of concepts from which everything else derives. And these concepts are not philosophical abstractions like endurants and perdurants, or qualia, they are normal terms whose definitions are quite close to what you already believe.
Gist has extensive and fine grained at the highest level. It turns out that in order for an upper ontology to help you avoid making logical errors in your derived enterprise or application ontology, it needs to make use of . Without , the reasoner does not find logic errors.”
Continue to Appendix G: Prior ontological commitment literature