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  1. The bigger and more complicated the engineering problem, the more likely it is to have a digital twin. Firms that build rockets, planes and ships, for example, have been creating digital twins since the early 2000s, seeing significant operational efficiencies and cost-savings as a result. To date, however, few firms have been able to realise the full potential of this technology by using it to develop new value- added services for their customers. We have developed a framework designed to help scale the value of digital twins beyond operational efficiency towards new revenue streams. In spite of the hype surrounding digital twins, there is little guidance for executives to help them make sense of the business opportunities the technology presents, beyond cost savings and operational efficiencies. Many businesses are keen to get a greater return on their digital twins’ investment by capitalising on the innovation – and revenue generating - opportunities that may arise from a deeper understanding of how customers use their products. However, because very few firms are making significant progress in this regard, there is no blueprint to follow. New business models are evolving but the business opportunities for suppliers, technology partners and end-users is yet to be fully documented. Most businesses will be familiar with the business model canvas as a tool to identify current and future business model opportunities. Our ‘Four Values’ (4Vs) framework for digital twins is a more concise version of the tool, developed to help executives better understand potential new business models. It was designed from a literature review and validated and modified through industry interviews. The 4Vs framework covers: the value proposition for the product or service being offered, the value architecture or the infrastructure that the firm creates and maintains in order to generate sustainable revenues; the value network representing the firm’s infrastructure and network of partners needed to create value and to maintain good customer relationships; and value finance such as cost and revenue structures. Value proposition The value proposition describes how an organisation creates value for itself, its customers and other stakeholders such as supply chain partners. It defines the products and services offered, customer value (both for customers and other businesses) as well as the ownership structure. Examples of digital twin-based services include condition monitoring, visualization, analytics, data selling, training, data aggregation and lifespan extension. Examples of customer value in this context might include: decision support, personalisation, process optimisation and transparency, customer/operator experience and training. Value architecture The value architecture describes how the business model is structured. It has 5 elements: 1. Value control is the approach an organisation takes to control value in the ecosystem. For example, does it exist solely within its own ecosystem of digital twin services or does it intersect with other ecosystems? 2. Value delivery describes how the digital twins are delivered, are they centralised, decentralised or hybrid? It also seeks to understand any barriers that may prevent the delivery of digital twins to customers. 3. Interactions refers to the method of customer interaction with the digital twin. Common examples of interaction include desktop or mobile app, virtual reality and augmented reality interactions. 4. Data collection underlies the digital twin value proposition and can be a combination of the following: sensor based and/or supplied/purchased data. 5. Boundary resources are the resources made available to enhance network effects and scale of digital twin services. This typically comprises of the following: APIs, hackathons, software development toolkits and forums. Value network The value network is the understanding of interorganisational connections and collaborations between a network of parties, organisations and stakeholders. In the context of digital twin services, this is a given as the delivery mechanism relies on multiple organisations, technological infrastructure and stakeholders. Value finance This defines how organisations approach costing, pricing methods and revenue structure for digital twins. Digital twin revenue model most commonly refers to outcomes-based revenue streams and data-driven revenue models. Digital twin pricing models include, for example, freemium and premium, subscription models, value-based pricing and outcome-based pricing models. Four types of digital twin business models were identified from extensive interviews with middle and top management on services offered by digital twins, we identified four different types of business models and applied our 4Vs approach to understand how those models are configured and how they generate value. Brokers These were all found in information, data and system services industries. Their value proposition is to provide a data marketplace that orchestrates the different players in the ecosystem and provides anonymised performance data from, for example, vehicle engines or heating systems for buildings. Value Finance consists of recurring monthly revenues levied through a platform which itself takes a fee and allocates the rest according to the partnership arrangements. Maintenance-optimisers This business model is prevalent in the world of complex assets, such as chemical processing plants and buildings. Its value proposition lies in providing additional insights to the customer on the maintenance of their assets to provide just-in-time services. What-if analysis and scenario planning are used to augment the services provided with the physical asset that is sold. Its Value Architecture is both open and closed, as these firms play in ecosystems but also create their own. They control the supply chain, how they design the asset, how they test it and deliver it. Its Value Network consists of strategic partners in process modelling, 3D visualisation, CAD, infrastructure and telecommunications. Value Finance includes software and services which provide a good margin within a subscription model. Clients are more likely to take add-on services that show significant cost savings. Uptime assurers This business model tends to be found in the transport sector, where it’s important to maximise the uptime of the aircraft, train or vehicle. The value proposition centres on keeping these vehicles operational, either through predictive maintenance for vehicle/ aircraft fleet management and, in the case of HGVs, route optimisation. Its Value Architecture is transitioning from closed to open ecosystems. There are fewer lock- in solutions as customers increasingly want an ecosystems approach. Typically, it is distributors, head offices and workshops that interact with the digital twin rather than the end-customer. The Value Network is open at the design and assembly lifecycle stages but becomes closed during sustainment phases. For direct customers digital twins are built in-house and are therefore less reliant on third-party solutions. Its Value Finance is focused on customers paying a fee to maximise the uptime of the vehicle or aircraft, guaranteeing, for example, access five days a week between certain hours. Mission assurers This business model focuses on delivering the necessary outcome to the customers. It tends to be found with government clients in the defense and aerospace sector. Value propositions are centered around improving efficacy of support and maintenance/ operator insight and guaranteeing mission success or completion. These business models suffer from a complex landscape of ownership for integrators of systems as much of the data does not make it to sustainment stages. Its Value Architecture is designed to deliver a series of digital threads in a decentralised manner. Immersive technologies are used for training purposes or improved operator experience. Its Value Network is more closed than open as these industries focus on critical missions of highly secure assets. Therefore, service providers are more security minded and careful of relying on third-party platforms for digital twin services. Semi-open architecture is used to connect to different hierarchies of digital twins/digital threads. Value Finance revealed that existing pricing models, contracts and commercial models are not yet necessarily mature enough to transition into platform-based revenue models. Insights as a service is a future direction but challenging at the moment, with the market not yet mature for outcome-based pricing. For B2B service-providers who are looking to generate new revenue from their digital twins, it is important to consider how the business model should be configured and identify major barriers to their success. Our research found that the barriers most often cited were cost, cybersecurity, cultural acceptance of the technology, commercial or market needs and, perhaps most significantly, a lack of buy-in from business leaders. Our 4Vs framework has been designed to help those leaders arrive at a better understanding of the business opportunities digital twin services can provide. We hope this will drive innovation and help digital twins realise their full business potential. Now for a small request to the reader that has reached this far, we are looking to scale these research findings in our mass survey across industry on the business models of digital twins. If your organisation is planning to implement or has already started its journey of transformation with digital twins please help support our study by participating in our survey. Survey remains fully anonymised and all our findings will be shared with the DTHub community in an executive summary by the end of the year. Link to participate in the survey study https://cambridge.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_0PXRkrDsXwtCnXg
  2. Interesting Question: What is one difficulty that you’ve encountered while trying to create a Digital Twin? Context: We’ve heard that creating a Digital Twin can be a bumpy road. Various challenges can get in the way no matter what sort of Digital Twin you’re trying to set up or why. We’ve noticed in various conversations on the DT Hub that there is a wide range of these challenges, from technical or cultural to those related to resources or supply chains, and so many more. We’d like to hear about your experiences, so please share them with us here. Just a few guidelines before you start: One example at a time please - no lists! However, multiple posts are welcomed Please cite the industry you’re talking about Please: Your posts need to be pithy: · Give each post a title that sums up your blocker · Limit each post to 100 words or so, or supply a short summary at the top if you can’t. · Please include an image, it helps your post stand out We encourage you to like, or vote, on each other’s posts if you agree with them, your facilitator Joao and the DT Hub/ 100%Open are looking forward to reading your input. Thank you.
  3. Smart decisions are made with the help of Digital threads and twins in discrete manufacturing. Anyone want to have a free session, how digital thread and twin are established with the help of CAD, PLM, Digital mock-up, MES, Augmented Reality and IoT, please let me know.
  4. until
    About the event Creating the products that will lead the delivery of true net zero will require transformational change in the product engineering, assurance, and production process. Innovative integration across the entire product, service and infrastructure enterprise will be essential to deliver the ambitious levels of performance that customers, society, and the environmental imperative demand. Digitalisation offers an opportunity to unlock transformation of our industrial system and is a core enabler to ensuring that the UK plays a dominant role in the definition of future mobility solutions. Novel information and data management systems will facilitate the ability to integrate the product & service enterprise across the entire value chain - essential if technology is to be exploited effectively. Digitalisation offers the potential to “democratise excellence” across the entire supply base and across our broad national industrial footprint. In this session, led by experts from the Institute of Digital Engineering, we look at one of today’s top technology trends, Digital Twins, and how it’s changing the way businesses operate, the customer experience, and its contribution to cleaner, more efficient, and safer products and services. But what is exactly is a digital twin and how can it add value? Is this the key to sustainability and future economic success, or is it just the new toy on the market? Speakers for this event include: Mark Enzer OBE, Head of National Digital Twin programme (CDBB), Chief Technical Officer at Mott MacDonald Jose Garcia-Urruchi, Head of Digital Engineering Capability - Jaguar Land Rover Peter Van Manen, Principal Consultant - Frazer-Nash Consultancy Louise Krug, Technical Lead – BT Bradley Yorke-Biggs, CEO & Professor of Practice – Institute of Digital Engineering IDE UK Register for this free webinar at https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/road-to-cop26-digitalisation-tickets-168562441801
  5. Katie Walsh

    Defining Our Digital Twin Challenges!

    Creating Digital Twins can be like sailing in uncharted waters, so how do you handle it when unforeseen challenges rock the boat? Can you even predict what kinds of things will disrupt your journey? We’ve noticed in various conversations on the DT Hub that no matter what sort of Digital Twin you’re trying to set up or why, there is an incredibly wide range of potential disruptions. From technical to cultural, from resources to supply chains, almost every avenue is susceptible to producing a challenge somewhere. Many examples that we’ve already seen have only become apparent once the people developing Digital Twins are up against them in real time, so that’s why the DT Hub has launched this new activity, Defining Our Digital Twin Challenges! We would like to know about the challenges you’ve encountered on your DT journey in order to make the overall roadmap easier to follow. The information you provide will help us to ultimately define our common challenges so we can start to solve them together. This series of thematic workshops, run by the DT Hub, will progress the conversation around the Digital Twin Journey, and surface some of the challenges that organisations are still facing whilst embarking on their journey. Each Challenge will culminate in an Activity, where we will present the specific challenge areas that you have brought to us to a select group in order to provide constructive feedback. The outcome of these workshops will be to share insights from inside and outside the community for the benefit of the community as a whole. You can use this activity Bring out your Digital Twin Challenges to explore your challenges with others, and our crowd facilitator, Joao, will be interacting with you to make sure you get the best experience possible. Joao is a former market researcher, court interpreter and has been a brilliant member of our team for years as a 100%Open Associate. We look forward to your invaluable contributions, and in turn the exponential development of the DT journey.
  6. until
    The London Digital Twin Research Centre would like to extend an invitation to all the Digital Twin researchers and enthusiasts from industry and academia to attend our annual 2021 workshop which is held online on June 4th, 2021. This virtual “Workshop on Transforming Industry and Society with Digital Twins” brings together experts from industry and academia to share their valuable insights regarding the adoption of the Digital Twin technology across different industries, from structural health monitoring, pandemic management, smart campuses through to health and wellbeing. The domains covered in this event provide opportunities and research challenges that the future maturation of digital twin technology demands. The virtual workshop represents an excellent opportunity for networking for Digital Twin enthusiasts to share ideas for future developments in digital twins. Programme Free Eventbrite registration: Link Time/date: 10am-3:30pm on Friday 4th June 2021 DT workshop_June2021.pdf
  7. until
    Elements within the Capital project world could be transformed through the use of DfMA (off site manufacturing)….. If we take housing as an example, the target set by government in 2015 (1.5 million house strategy) has not been achieved The benefits of DfMA linked with the advantages of autonomous assembly lines have been widely published. If these advantages are correct, why is the uptake so low? Is there a chicken and egg scenario? You need the use of DfMA to increase to gain capital investment (autonomy investment), you need investment to enable a greater output and wider use? Where are we heading? Join us to hear our panel of Industry experts including government that will discuss the current thoughts and ideas around this subject and what we can do to improve uptake
  8. A lot of the early thinking on digital twins has been led by manufacturers. So, what do digital twins mean to them and what insights could this provide for the built environment? This blog is the second in series that looks at what we can learn from the development of digital twins in other sectors. It draws on key findings from a report by the High Value Manufacturing Catapult. This includes industry perspectives on: The definition of digital twins Key components of digital twins Types of twin and related high-level applications and value The report “Feasibility of an immersive digital twin: The definition of a digital twin and discussions around the benefit of immersion” looks partly at the potential for the use of immersive environments. But, in the main, it asks a range of questions about digital twins that should be of interest to this community. The findings in the report were based on an industry workshop and an online survey with around 150 respondents. We’ve already seen that there are many views on what does or does not constitute a digital twin. Several options were given in the survey, and the most popular definition, resonating with 90% of respondents was: A virtual replica of the physical asset which can be used to monitor and evaluate its performance When it comes to key components of digital twins, the report suggests that these should include: A model of the physical object or system, which provides context Connectivity between digital and physical assets, which transmits data in at least one direction The ability to monitor the physical system in real time. By contrast, in the built environment, digital twins may not always need to be “real-time”. However, looking at the overall document, the position appears to be more nuanced and dependent on the type of application. In which case, “real-time” could be interpreted as “right-time” or “timely”. In addition, analytics, control and simulation are seen as optional or value-added components. Interestingly, 3D representations are seen by many as “nice to have” – though this will vary according to the type of application. In a similar fashion to some of our discussions with DT Hub members, the report looks at several types of digital twin (it is difficult to think of all twins as being the same!). The types relate to the level of interactivity, control and prediction: Supervisory or observational twins that have a monitoring role, receiving and analysing data but that may not have direct feedback to the physical asset or system Interactive digital twins that provide a degree of control over the physical things themselves Predictive digital twins that use simulations along with data from the physical objects or systems, as well as wider contextual data, to predict performance and optimise operations (e.g. to increase output from a wind farm by optimising the pitch of the blades). These types of twin are presented as representing increasing levels of richness or complexity: interactive twins include all the elements of supervisory twins; and predictive twins incorporate the capabilities of all three types. Not surprisingly, the range of feasible applications relates to the type of twin. Supervisory twins can be used to monitor processes and inform non-automated decisions. Interactive twins enable control, which can be remote from the shop-floor or facility. Whereas, predictive twins support predictive maintenance approaches, and can help reduce down-time and improve productivity. More sophisticated twins – and potentially combining data across twins – can provide insight into rapid introduction (and I could imagine customisation) of products or supply chains. Another way of looking at this is to think about which existing processes or business systems could be replaced or complemented by digital twins. This has also come up in some of our discussions with DT Hub members and other built environment stakeholders – in the sense that investments in digital twins should either improve a specific business process/system or mean that that it is no longer needed (otherwise DT investments could just mean extra costs). From the survey: Over 80% of respondents felt that digital twins could complement or replace systems for monitoring or prediction (either simple models or discrete event simulation) Around two-thirds felt the same for aspects related to analysis and control (trend analysis, remote interaction and prescriptive maintenance) with over half seeing a similar opportunity for next generation product design While remote monitoring and quality were seen as the areas with greatest potential value. Cost reduction in operations and New Product Development (NPD) also feature as areas of value generation, as well as costs related to warranty and servicing. The latter reflects increasing servitisation in manufacturing. This could also become more important in the built environment, with growing interest in gain-share type arrangements through asset lifecycles as well as increasing use of components that have been manufactured off-site. It would be great if you would like to share your views on any of the points raised above. For example, do you think built environment twins need the same or different components to those described above? And can digital twins for applications like remote monitoring and quality management also deliver significant value in the built environment?
  9. Guest

    AMEST 2020

    until
    The 4th IFAC AMEST’20 Workshop will bring together experts from academia and industry to discuss the latest advances in digital technologies and their impact on reliability, maintenance and asset management. The workshop will cover a broad range of research and application topics exploring the role of data-driven maintenance and asset management within the domains of manufacturing and infrastructure. Ajith Parlikad, who works on digital twins for CDBB and CSIC, is co-organising the AMEST conference in Cambridge in Sept 2020. He will be doing a special session on "Digital Twins for Infrastructure" focussed on use of digital twins through life, including asset management and maintenance. For earlybird tickets visit: https://onlinesales.admin.cam.ac.uk/conferences-and-events/department-of-engineering/amest/amest-2020
  10. Internationally, academic research by the University of St. Gallen has yielded a breadth of digital twin related research papers as well as areas for further research https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326683102_Digital_Twin_Concepts_in_Manufacturing_Industries_-_A_Literature_Review_and_Avenues_for_Further_Research
  11. Digital Twins are being discussed in many industries. In this article IBM considers them from an automotive perspective. https://www.ibm.com/blogs/internet-of-things/iot-digital-twin-enablers/
  12. A lot of the early thinking on digital twins has been led by manufacturers. So, what do digital twins mean to them and what insights could this provide for the built environment? This blog is the second in series that looks at what we can learn from the development of digital twins in other sectors. It draws on key findings from a report by the High Value Manufacturing Catapult. This includes industry perspectives on: The definition of digital twins Key components of digital twins Types of twin and related high-level applications and value The report “Feasibility of an immersive digital twin: The definition of a digital twin and discussions around the benefit of immersion” looks partly at the potential for the use of immersive environments. But, in the main, it asks a range of questions about digital twins that should be of interest to this community. The findings in the report were based on an industry workshop and an online survey with around 150 respondents. We’ve already seen that there are many views on what does or does not constitute a digital twin. Several options were given in the survey, and the most popular definition, resonating with 90% of respondents was: A virtual replica of the physical asset which can be used to monitor and evaluate its performance When it comes to key components of digital twins, the report suggests that these should include: A model of the physical object or system, which provides context Connectivity between digital and physical assets, which transmits data in at least one direction The ability to monitor the physical system in real time. By contrast, in the built environment, digital twins may not always need to be “real-time”. However, looking at the overall document, the position appears to be more nuanced and dependent on the type of application. In which case, “real-time” could be interpreted as “right-time” or “timely”. In addition, analytics, control and simulation are seen as optional or value-added components. Interestingly, 3D representations are seen by many as “nice to have” – though this will vary according to the type of application. In a similar fashion to some of our discussions with DT Hub members, the report looks at several types of digital twin (it is difficult to think of all twins as being the same!). The types relate to the level of interactivity, control and prediction: Supervisory or observational twins that have a monitoring role, receiving and analysing data but that may not have direct feedback to the physical asset or system Interactive digital twins that provide a degree of control over the physical things themselves Predictive digital twins that use simulations along with data from the physical objects or systems, as well as wider contextual data, to predict performance and optimise operations (e.g. to increase output from a wind farm by optimising the pitch of the blades). These types of twin are presented as representing increasing levels of richness or complexity: interactive twins include all the elements of supervisory twins; and predictive twins incorporate the capabilities of all three types. Not surprisingly, the range of feasible applications relates to the type of twin. Supervisory twins can be used to monitor processes and inform non-automated decisions. Interactive twins enable control, which can be remote from the shop-floor or facility. Whereas, predictive twins support predictive maintenance approaches, and can help reduce down-time and improve productivity. More sophisticated twins – and potentially combining data across twins – can provide insight into rapid introduction (and I could imagine customisation) of products or supply chains. Another way of looking at this is to think about which existing processes or business systems could be replaced or complemented by digital twins. This has also come up in some of our discussions with DT Hub members and other built environment stakeholders – in the sense that investments in digital twins should either improve a specific business process/system or mean that that it is no longer needed (otherwise DT investments could just mean extra costs). From the survey: Over 80% of respondents felt that digital twins could complement or replace systems for monitoring or prediction (either simple models or discrete event simulation) Around two-thirds felt the same for aspects related to analysis and control (trend analysis, remote interaction and prescriptive maintenance) with over half seeing a similar opportunity for next generation product design While remote monitoring and quality were seen as the areas with greatest potential value. Cost reduction in operations and New Product Development (NPD) also feature as areas of value generation, as well as costs related to warranty and servicing. The latter reflects increasing servitisation in manufacturing. This could also become more important in the built environment, with growing interest in gain-share type arrangements through asset lifecycles as well as increasing use of components that have been manufactured off-site. It would be great if you would like to share your views on any of the points raised above. For example, do you think built environment twins need the same or different components to those described above? And can digital twins for applications like remote monitoring and quality management also deliver significant value in the built environment?
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