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Peter El Hajj

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Acronym Full Name Initial release Self Description
BFO Basic Formal Ontology 2002 The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) framework developed by Barry Smith and his associates consists of a series of sub-ontologies at different levels of granularity. The ontologies are divided into two varieties: relating to continuant entities such as three-dimensional enduring objects, and occurrent entities (primarily) processes conceived as unfolding in successive phases through time. BFO thus incorporates both three-dimensionalist and four-dimensionalist perspectives on reality within a single framework. Interrelations are defined between the two types of ontologies in a way which gives BFO the facility to deal with both static/spatial and dynamic/temporal features of reality. A continuant domain ontology descending from BFO can be conceived as an inventory of entities existing at a time. Each occurrent ontology can be conceived as an inventory of processes unfolding through a given interval of time. Both BFO itself and each of its extension sub-ontologies can be conceived as a window on a certain portion of reality at a given level of granularity.
BORO Business Objects Reference Ontology late 1980s Business Objects Reference Ontology is an upper ontology designed for developing ontological or semantic models for large complex operational applications that consists of a top ontology as well as a process for constructing the ontology. It is built upon a series of clear metaphysical choices to provide a solid (metaphysical) foundation. A key choice was for an extensional (and hence, four-dimensional) ontology which provides it a simple criteria of identity. Elements of it have appeared in a number of standards. For example, the ISO standard, ISO 15926 – Industrial automation systems and integration – was heavily influenced by an early version. The IDEAS (International Defence Enterprise Architecture Specification for exchange) standard is based upon BORO, which in turn was used to develop DODAF 2.0.
CIDOC CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model 1999 Although "CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model" (CRM) is a domain ontology, specialised to the purposes of representing cultural heritage, a subset called CRM Core is a generic upper ontology, including:[15][16]
- Space-Time – title/identifier, place, era/period, time-span, relationship to persistent items
- Events – title/identifier, beginning/ending of existence, participants (people, either individually or in groups), creation/modification of things (physical or conceptional), relationship to persistent items
- Material Things – title/identifier, place, the information object the material thing carries, part-of relationships, relationship to persistent items
- Immaterial Things – title/identifier, information objects (propositional or symbolic), conceptional things, part-of relationships
CIM Common Information Model 1999 The Common Information Model (CIM) is an open standard that defines how managed elements in an IT environment are represented as a common set of objects and relationships between them.
COSMO COmmon Semantic MOdel not known - pre-2006 Developed with the goal of developing a foundation ontology that can serve to enable broad general Semantic Interoperability.
Cyc Cyc 1984 Artificial intelligence project that aims to assemble a comprehensive ontology and knowledge base that spans the basic concepts and rules about how the world works.
DC The Dublin Core ontology 1995 This is a light weight RDFS vocabulary for describing generic metadata.
DOLCE Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering 2002 Is oriented toward capturing the ontological categories underlying natural language and human common sense.
EMMO The European Materials Modelling Ontology (EMMO) 2019 (?) The EMMO top level is the group of fundamental axioms that constitute the philosophical foundation of the EMMO. Adopting a physicalistic/nominalistic perspective, the EMMO defines real world objects as 4D objects that are always extended in space and time (i.e. real world objects cannot be spaceless nor timeless). For this reason abstract objects, i.e. objects that does not extend in space and time, are forbidden in the EMMO. It has been instigated by materials science and provides the connection between the physical world, the experimental world (materials characterisation) and the simulation world (materials modelling).
FIBO Financial Industry Business Ontology 2010 (?) The Financial Industry Business Ontology (FIBO) defines the sets of things that are of interest in financial business applications and the ways that those things can relate to one another.
FrameNet FrameNet 2000 (?) The FrameNet project is building a lexical database of English that is both human- and machine-readable, based on annotating examples of how words are used in actual texts.
GFO General Formal Ontology 2006 Realistic ontology integrating processes and objects. It attempts to include many aspects of recent philosophy, which is reflected both in its taxonomic tree and its axiomatizations.
gist gist 2007 It is designed to have the maximum coverage of typical business ontology concepts with the fewest number of primitives and the least amount of ambiguity.
HQDM High Quality Data Models 2011 The High Quality Data Models (HQDM) Framework is a 4 dimensionalist top level ontology with extensional identity criteria that aims to support large scale data integration. As such it aims to ensure there is consistency among data created using the framework. The HQDM Framework is based on work developing and using ISO 15926 and lessons learnt from BORO, which influenced ISO 19526.
IDEAS International Defence Enterprise Architecture Specification 2006 The upper ontology developed by the IDEAS Group is higher-order, extensional and 4D. It was developed using the BORO Method. The IDEAS ontology is not intended for reasoning and inference purposes; its purpose is to be a precise model of business.
IEC 62541 IEC 62541 - OPC Unified Architecture 2006 OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) is a machine to machine communication protocol for industrial automation developed by the OPC Foundation.
IEC 63088 Smart manufacturing - Reference architecture model industry 4.0 (RAMI4.0) 2017 IEC PAS 63088:2017(E) describes a reference architecture model in the form of a cubic layer model, which shows technical objects (assets) in the form of layers, and allows them to be described, tracked over their entire lifetime (or “vita”) and assigned to technical and/or organizational hierarchies. It also describes the structure and function of Industry 4.0 components as essential parts of the virtual representation of assets.
ISO 12006-3 ISO 12006-3:2007 - Building construction — Organization of information about construction works — Part 3: Framework for object-oriented information 2007 ISO 12006-3:2007 specifies a language-independent information model which can be used for the development of dictionaries used to store or provide information about construction works. It enables classification systems, information models, object models and process models to be referenced from within a common framework.
ISO 15926-2 Industrial automation systems and integration—Integration of life-cycle data for process plants including oil and gas production facilities 2003 The ISO 15926 is a standard for data integration, sharing, exchange, and hand-over between computer systems.
KR Ontology KR Ontology 1999 The KR Ontology is defined in the book Knowledge Representation by John F. Sowa. Its categories have been derived from a synthesis of various sources, but the two major influences are the semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce and the categories of existence of Alfred North Whitehead. The primitive categories are: Independent, Relative, or Mediating; Physical or Abstract; Continuant or Occurrent.
MarineTLO Marine Top Level Ontology 2013 (?) Is a top level ontology, generic enough to provide consistent abstractions or specifications of concepts included in all data models or ontologies of marine data sources and provide the necessary properties to make this distributed knowledge base a coherent source of facts relating observational data with the respective spatiotemporal context and categorical (systematic) domain knowledge.
MIMOSA CCOM MIMOSA CCOM (Machinery Information Management Open Systems Alliance - Common Conceptual Object Model) not known MIMOSA CCOM (Common Conceptual Object Model) serves as an information model for the exchange of asset information. Its core mission is to facilitate standards-based interoperability between systems: providing an XML model to allow systems to electronically exchange data.
OWL-2 OWL-2 2004 The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies. Ontologies are a formal way to describe taxonomies and classification networks, essentially defining the structure of knowledge for various domains: the nouns representing classes of objects and the verbs representing relations between the objects.
PROTON PROTo ONtology 2005 (?) Is designed as a lightweight upper-level ontology for use in Knowledge Management and Semantic Web applications.
Schema.org Schema.org 2011 Schema.org is a collaborative, community activity with a mission to create, maintain, and promote schemas for structured data on the Internet, on web pages, in email messages, and beyond.
SENSUS The SENSUS ontology 2001 We have constructed SENSUS, a 70,000-node terminology taxonomy, as a framework into which additional knowledge can be placed. SENSUS is an extension and reorganization of WordNet
SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System 2009 SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and standards to support the use of knowledge organization systems (KOS) such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading systems and taxonomies within the framework of the Semantic Web.
SUMO Suggested Upper Merged Ontology 2000 Is an upper ontology intended as a foundation ontology for a variety of computer information processing systems.
TMRM The Topic Maps Reference Model late 1990s A topic map is a standard for the representation and interchange of knowledge, with an emphasis on the findability of information.
UFO Unified Foundational Ontology 2005 Incorporates developments from GFO, DOLCE and the Ontology of Universals underlying OntoClean in a single coherent foundational ontology.
UMBEL Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer 2008 Is a logically organized knowledge graph of 34,000 concepts and entity types that can be used in information science for relating information from disparate sources to one another. Since UMBEL is an open-source extract of the OpenCyc knowledge base, it can also take advantage of the reasoning capabilities within Cyc.
UML Unified Modeling Language (UML) 1994 The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.
UMLS UMLS 1986 The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is a compendium of many controlled vocabularies in the biomedical sciences (created 1986).[1] It provides a mapping structure among these vocabularies and thus allows one to translate among the various terminology systems; it may also be viewed as a comprehensive thesaurus and ontology of biomedical concepts. UMLS further provides facilities for natural language processing. It is intended to be used mainly by developers of systems in medical informatics.
WordNet WordNet 1985 WordNet® is a large lexical database of English. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept.
YAMATO Yet Another More Advanced Top Ontology 1999 YAMATO: Yet Another More Advanced Top-level Ontology which has been developed intended to cover three features in Quality description, Representation and Process/Event, respectively, in a better way than existing ontologies. It has been extensively used for developing other, more applied, ontologies.
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  • 3 months later...

Thanks Steven. The full list will be available as part of the TLO Survey paper that we hope to publish toward the end of this month. It will be shared here at that time.

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